This paper aims to encourage debate about political opposition in new and restored democracies. It does so by addressing four questions. First, the paper considers what theorists have said about political opposition generally. It then moves to examine the various forms that political opposition takes. Third, there is an analysis of selected cases of political opposition in a number of Latin American countries that gives particular attention to Nicaragua. The study concludes with some suggestions for further investigation of and thinking about opposition in the context of democratic political change, particularly of institutionalized opposition that extends beyond political parties and legislatures.